C)- Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility
 Rigid Constitution- Requires a special procedure for its amendment- American Constitution.
 Flexible constitution- Amended in the same manner as the ordinary laws British Constitution.
 Constitution of India- Neither rigid nor flexible- Synthesis of both.
 Article 368 provides for two types of amendments:
 (a) Some provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament. i.e., a two-third
majority of the members of each House present and voting, and a majority (that is, more than
50 per cent), of the total membership of each House.
 (b) Some other provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament and with the
ratification by half of the total states.
 Some provisions of the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority of the Parliament in
the manner of ordinary legislative process.
 These amendments do not come under Article 368.

D)-Federal System with Unitary Bias
 Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government.
Features of a federation :
1)-Two government,
2)-Division of powers,
3)-Written Constitution,
4)-Supermacy of Constitution,
5)-Rigidity of Constitution,
6)-Independent judiciary and

Unitary or Non-Federal features : 
1)-A strong Centre,
2)-Single Constitution,
3)-Single citizenship,
4)-Flexibility of Constitution,
5)-Integrated judiciary,
6)-appointment of state governor by the Centre,
7)-all-India services,
8)-emergency provisions.

Term ‘Federation’ has nowhere been used in Constitution.
Article 1- ‘Union of States’ which implies two things:
1)- Indian Federation is not the result of an agreement by the states.
2)- No state has the right to secede from the federation.
‘Federal in form but unitary in spirit’, – ‘quasi-federal’ by K C Wheare.
‘Bargaining federalism’ by Morris Jones,
‘Co-operative federalism’ by Granville Austin,
‘Federation with a centralising tendency’ by Ivor Jennings.

E)-Parliamentary Form of Government
British parliamentary System of Government rather than US Presidential System of Government.
 Presidential system- Based on the doctrine of separation of powers between the two organs
 Parliamentary system- Based on the principle of cooperation and co-ordination between the legislative and executive organs.
 1)-Also known as the ‘Westminster’ model of government,
 2)-Responsible government and
 3)-Cabinet government.
 Constitution establishes- Parliamentary system not only at the Centre but also in the states.

  Features of parliamentary government in India…
(a) Presence of nominal and real executives;
(b) Majority party rule,
(c) Collective responsibility of the executive to the legislature,
(d) Membership of the ministers in the legislature,
(e) Leadership of the prime minister or the chief minister,
(f) Dissolution of the lower House (Lok Sabha or Assembly).
Differences between- Indian & British Parliamentary-
 Indian Parliament is not a sovereign body like the British Parliament.
 Indian State has an elected head (republic) while British State has hereditary head (monarchy)

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