High Court

 Indian single integrated judicial system,
 High Court operates below the Supreme Court but above the subordinate courts
 High Court occupies the top position in the judicial administration of a state.
 Institution of high court originated in India in 1862 when the high courts were set up at
1)- Calcutta,
2)- Bombay
3)- Madras
In 1866, a fourth High Court was established at Allahabad.
 In the course of time, each province in British India came to have its own high court.
 Constitution of India provides for a HC for each state,
 But the 7th Amendment Act of 1956 authorised the Parliament to establish a common high court for two or more states or for two or more states and a union territory.
 24 high courts in the county

Delhi is the only union territory that has a high court of its own (since 1966)
Other union territories fall under the jurisdiction of different state high courts
Articles 214 to 231 in Part VI of the Constitution deal with the organisation, independence, jurisdiction, powers, procedures and so on of the high courts.
Constitution does not specify the strength of a high court and leaves it to the discretion of the president.
 Accordingly, the President determines the strength of a high court from time to time depending upon its workload.
 Judges- Appointment of Judges- Collegium System
 99th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2014 and National Judicial Appointments Commission Act of 2014 have replaced the Collegium System

Qualifications of Judges
Oath or Affirmation
Tenure of Judges
Removal of Judges
Salaries and Allowances
Transfer of Judges
Acting Chief Justice
Additional and Acting Judges
Retired Judges

Independence of a high court

1. Mode of Appointment
2. Security of Tenure
3. Fixed Service Conditions
4. Expenses Charged on Consolidated Fund
5. Conduct of Judges cannot be Discussed
6. Ban on Practice after Retirement
7. Power to Punish for its Contempt
8. Freedom to Appoint its Staff
9. Its Jurisdiction cannot be Curtailed
10. Separation from Executive

 

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