Subordinate Courts

 Articles 233 to 237 in Part VI
 Provisions to regulate the organization of subordinate courts
 To ensure their independence from the executive

Appointment of District Judges

 Appointment, Posting and promotion of district judges in a state are made by Governor of the state in consultation with the high court.

 (a) He should not already be in the service of the Central or the state government
 (b) He should have been an advocate or a pleader for seven years
 (c) He should be recommended by the high court for appointment.

Appointment of other Judges Appointment of persons (other than district judges) to the judicial service of a state are made by
 Governor of the state after consultation with the
 State Public Service Commission and
 High Court

Control over Subordinate Courts- Vested in the high court
 Control over district courts and other subordinate courts including the Posting, promotion and leave of persons
Expression ‘district judge’ includes judge of a city civil court, additional district judge, joint district judge, assistant district judge, chief judge of a small cause court, chief presidency magistrate, additional chief presidency magistrate, sessions judge, additional sessions judge and assistant sessions judge

 District judge is the highest judicial authority in the district.
 He possesses original and appellate jurisdiction
 Both civil as well as criminal matters.
 District judge is also the sessions judge.
 When he deals with civil cases, he is known as the district judge
 When he hears the criminal cases, he is called as the sessions judge
 District judge exercises both judicial and administrative powers.
 Supervisory powers over all the subordinate courts in the district
 Appeals against his orders and judgements lie to the High Court
Sessions judge has the power to impose any sentence including life imprisonment and capital punishment (death sentence).
 However, a capital punishment passed by him is subject to confirmation by the High Court, whether there is an appeal or not.

 Below the District and Sessions Court stands the Court of Subordinate Judge on the civil side and the Court of Chief Judicial Magistrate on the criminal side.
Subordinate judge exercises unlimited pecuniary(धनसंबंधी) jurisdiction over civil suits.
Chief judicial magistrate decides criminal cases which are punishable with imprisonment for a term up to seven years
 Lowest level,
 On the civil side, is the Court of Munsiff and
 On the criminal side, is the Court of Judicial Magistrate.
 Munsiff possesses limited jurisdiction and decides civil cases of small pecuniary stake.
Judicial magistrate tries criminal cases which are punishable with imprisonment for a term up to three years.

 Some metropolitan cities
City civil courts (chief judges) on the civil side
Courts of metropolitan magistrates on the criminal side.
 Some states, Panchayat Courts try petty civil and criminal cases.
 They are variously known as Nyaya Panchayat, Gram Kutchery, Adalati Panchayat, Panchayat Adalat and so on.

Pdf of the Lecture :

Video Lecture by Veer Talyan : 

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